Kali Linux

Distribution name: Kali Linux
Country of origin: Switzerland 
Forked from: Debian
Original release date: February 2015
Current version: 2.0
Current version release date: August 2015

Kali Linux is an open source operating system which operates as a project. The project is maintained and funded by the company Offensive Security, which provides world-class information security training and penetration testing services. Kali Linux is a Debian-derived distribution that is used mainly for both penetration testing and digital forensics. The operating system comes preinstalled with over 600 different penetration testing programs. These include graphical cyber attack management tools, port scanners, packet analyzer, crackers, security scanners, etc. It can be booted off a hard disk, live CD/USB, or virtual machine. Arguably one of the most securely developed operating systems in the world, the developers operating in a secure location with only a select number of trusted people that can commit packages. Currently the operating system is in version 2.0.